Salem is a major city in Salem district, located on the banks of Thirumanimutharu river in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located about 140 kilometres (87 mi) northwest of Tiruchirappalli, 170 kilometres (106 mi) northeast of Coimbatore, 206 kilometres (128 mi) southeast of Bangalore and about 340 kilometres (210 mi) southwest of the state capital, Chennai. Salem is the fifth largest urban agglomeration in the state by population next to Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai and Trichy and the fifth largest city in Tamil Nadu by area covering 124 km2 (48 sq mi).
The city has been a part of Chola Dynasty. A lot of religious places are located with in the city. A mosque in the city is believed to be built by Tipu Sultan the ruler of Mysore Kingdom in the present day of Karnataka. The town and the surrounding hilly regions were part of the Chola dynasty and was part of the trade route with the Roman empire. It was later governed by Poligars, who built temples and forts in and around the city. It was part of the Vijayanagara empire before being captured by Hyder Ali during the early 18th century, after the Mysore-Madurai war. It was ceded to the British in 1768 and the area became part of the struggle between Kongu Nadu led by Dheeran Chinnamalai and the British. Salem became part of Salem district since independence in 1947. Salem district was the first district to be formed in India on 4 April 1792 that spread over 7,530 sq km comprising the present-day Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri. Alexander Reed was the collector of the Salem district from 1792 to 1799.
During the 3rd century BCE, there was period of Bogar – a notable Tamil Siddhar and at that time Jainism and Buddhism arrived. Around the beginning of the common era, the existence of a culturally and economically advanced society in Salem two thousand years ago is evident from the discovery of silver coins of the Roman Emperor Tiberices Claudices Nero (37–68 CE) in Koneripatti of Salem in 1987. Later Pandya dynasty started ruling the region around Salem. Later Pallava dynasty rises in Salem. After that Mahendra Varma Pallava came to Salem and Saivite principles rise. After Mahednra Varma Pallava, Narasimha Varma Pallava came. Soon Pandya dynasty came to Salem. The Hoysala rule established in Salem and parts of few Salem remained under Pandya dynasty.
Salem is located at 11.67°N 78.14°E, at an average elevation of 278 m (912 ft.). The city is surrounded by hills: Nagaramalai on the north, Jarugumalai on the south, Kanjamalai on the west, Godumalai on the east and the Shevaroy Hills on the northeast. Kariyaperumal Hill is in southwestern Salem. The Thirumanimutharu River flows through the city, dividing it in two. The fort area is the oldest part of Salem.
Salem lies in the foothills of Shevaroy hills which houses the famous hill Station ‘Yercaud’.
Salem has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw). January and February are generally pleasant; the hot summer begins in March, with the year’s highest temperatures during April. Pre-monsoon thunderstorms occur during April and May. The Southwest monsoon season lasts from June to September. The northeast monsoon occurs from October to December.
Salem is a major textile centre in Tamil Nadu, with more than 125 spinning mills, weaving units and garment units. Until the 1960s, it had fewer spinning mills. Private handloom weaving began to increase in the region after the 1960s and during the 1980s, the textile industry expanded with major spinning mills and dyeing units established supporting the industry.
The area also houses a number of sago factories for the production starch. In Salem district, 34,000 hectares (130 sq mi) of land are devoted to cassava and 650 industrial units are engaged in tapioca processing. In 1981, the Salem Starch and Sago Manufacturers Service Industrial Co-operative Society (SAGOSERVE) was established to promote the sago industry and nearly 80 percent of the national demand for sago and starch is met by SAGOSERVE. In and around Salem cassava yields are 25–30 tons per hectare, one of the highest in the world; the national average is 19 tons per hectare, and the world average is 10 tons.
Salem District is one of the 38 districts of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The district is now divided into Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Namakkal as individual districts. Salem is the district headquarters and other major towns in the district include Mettur, Thammampatti, Attur, Omalur, Sankagiri and Edappadi. That Salem dates to at least two thousand years ago is evident from the discovery of silver coins from the Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (37–68 CE) found by Koneripatti of Salem in 1987. It was ruled by Mazhavar King Kolli Mazhavan and kings Adhiyaman and Valvil Ori of Sangam age. It is part of Kongu Nadu and Mazhanadu, a vast region that dates to the 2nd century BCE. Salem was the largest district of Tamil Nadu. It was bifurcated into Salem and Dharmapuri districts in 1965 and Namakkal district in 1997. Now Salem has been developed a lot by building many bridges and is considered to be the smart city. Salem is famous for cultivating mangoes.
Salem had a population of 826,267 in the 2011 census. There were 987 females for every 1,000 males, significantly higher than the national average of 929. The main language spoken is Tamil. Kannada is spoken among Devayanga community. A total of 79,067 were under age six: 40,570 males and 38,497 females. The city’s literacy rate was 76.37 percent, higher than the national average of 72.99 percent. Salem had 215,747 households and a total of 332,147 workers: 1,599 farmers, 3,040 agricultural laborers, 32,597 in household industries, 278,892 other workers, 16,019 part-time workers, 165 part-time farmers, 544 part-time agricultural workers, 1,937 part-time workers in household industries and 13,373 other part-time workers. As per the religious census of 2011, Salem had 89.79% Hindus, 7.48% Muslims, 2.36% Christians, 0.11% Jains, 0.02% Sikhs, 0.01% Buddhists, 0.2% following other religions and 0.02% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference.
Salem Junction is an A-1 category ISO-14001 certified railway junction located in Suramangalam area, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) west of the city. In 2005, the Railway Board approved the creation of a Salem railway division from Palakkad and Tiruchirapalli divisions. It is the fourth-largest of the six Southern Railway zone divisions. Salem Railway Junction has been rated as the cleanest station among the divisional headquarters railway stations and also the ninth cleanest railway station in the entire country, according to a survey report published in June 2017.
Salem is the headquarters of the Salem division of TNSTC. The city has two major bus stations: the MGR Integrated Bus Terminus in Meyyanoor and the Town Bus Station (Old Bus Stand) in the town area. Intercity and interstate routes and private buses originate at the Central Bus Stand (New Bus Stand), and local buses originate at the Old Bus Stand.
Salem Airport (IATA SXV, ICAO VOSM) is located on the Salem-Bengaluru Highway (NH44) in Kaamalapuram about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city. Airports Authority of India (AAI) opened the airport in 1993 for commercial operations. Kingfisher Airlines flew from Chennai but ended its service in October 2011 due to low occupancy.
The Salem Saturday Market is an organization operating a series of five farmers’ markets in Salem, Oregon, United States. Opened in 1998, Saturday, Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, and holiday markets are operating, as of 2018.
The market celebrated its twentieth anniversary in 2018.
Spread over an area of about 20,000 sq ft., Nirmal Skywin Mall provides tourists and local people with a fantastic shopping experience. For spending time with family, friends and kids, Nirmal Skywin Mall in Salem is unique in its features. There is a big kid play along with a perfect surveillance system spread throughout the entire mall. Guest Service along with free wi-fi, both are available, and you can get a wide range of products comprising from baby care and maternity care to women’s apparel, fitness product, men’s apparel, gifts and handicrafts items and many others. Few restaurants are also present to feed your hungry tummy. Meat and Eat can be a great choice if you want to eat some quality chicken cuisines and veg items, as well. Other than that, this mall in Salem also has are Shakers, Yercaud Coffee shop and ice cream parlours.
INOX – Reliance Mall, Meyyanur is a popular theatre located at 1st Floor, Reliance Mall, Five Roads Junction, Near ICICI Bank ATM, Meyyanur, West, Salem. INOX – Reliance Mall, Meyyanur has 1 screens. Movies now showing at INOX – Reliance Mall, Meyyanur are Rudra Thandavam, Sivakumarin Sabadham, No Time To Die and No Time To Die. Facilities available at INOX – Reliance Mall, Meyyanur are Parking, Recliner Seats and Food And Beverage.
Anna Park is designed as an engaging and active space with events to serve all ages. It has a lovely nature play space, enjoys outdoor activities, and gathers spots for picnic visitors. The park boasts several family-friendly attractions for kids and their parents to enjoy. Anna Park offers playing equipment, Multi-use game area, outdoor kids activity area, event conducting areas and fitness equipment.
Kauvery Hospital has come up with a 100 bedded multi specialty hospital in Salem. Located right in the heart of the city, this unit has state of the art infrastructure and facilities to function as a truly tertiary care hospital. We provide patients with services in more than 20 specialties including Cardiology, Paediatrics, Urology, Neurosciences, Orthopedics and Emergency Care at an affordable cost.
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